A new scheme based on perturbation method is presented to solve the problem of solar/infrared radiative transfer (SRT/IRT) in a scattering medium, in which the inherent optical properties (IOPs) are vertically inhomogeneous. The Eddington approximation for SRT and the two-stream approximation for IRT are used as the zeroth-order solution, and multiple-scattering effect of inhomogeneous IOPs is included in the first-order solution. Observations show that the stratocumulus clouds are vertically inhomogeneous, and the accuracy of SRT/IRT for stratocumulus clouds by different solutions is evaluated. In the spectral band of 0.25–0.69 μm, the relative error in absorption with inhomogeneous SRT solution is 1.4% at most, but with the homogeneous SRT solution, it can be up to 7.4%. In the spectral band of 5–8 μm, the maximum relative error of downward emissivity can reach −11% for the homogeneous IRT solution but only −2% for the inhomogeneous IRT solution.
Part of the book: Perturbation Methods with Applications in Science and Engineering
Various radiative transfer (RT) schemes are presented in the chapter including four-stream discrete ordinates adding method (4DDA), four-stream harmonic expansion approximation (4SDA) for the solar spectra and absorption approximation (AA), variational iteration method (VIM) for the infrared spectra. 4DDA uses Gaussian quadrature method to deal with the integration in the RT equation. 4SDA considers four-order spherical harmonic expansion in radiative intensity. VIM allows the zeroth-order solution to be identified as AA, and the scattering effect is included in the first-order iteration. By applying 4DDA/4SDA to a realistic atmospheric profile with gaseous transmission considered, it is found that the accuracy of 4DDA/4SDA is superior to two stream spherical harmonic (Eddington approximation) adding method (2SDA) and two-stream discrete ordinates adding method (2DDA), especially for the cloudy conditions. It is shown that the relative errors of 4DDA/4SDA are generally less than 1% in heating rate, while the relative errors of both 2SDA and 2DDA are over 6%. By applying VIM to a full radiation algorithm a gaseous gaseous transmission, it is found that VIM is generally more accurate than the discrete ordinates method (DOM). Computationally, VIM is slightly faster than DOM in the two-stream case but more than twice as fast in the four-stream case. In view of its high overall accuracy and computational efficiency, 4DDA, 4SDA, as well as VIM are well suited in solving radiative transfer in climate models.
Part of the book: Understanding of Atmospheric Systems with Efficient Numerical Methods for Observation and Prediction