Applying mechanical perturbations at the working electrode during the electrodeposition process is a novel strategy for materials synthesis that has been used for Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film synthesis. A mechanical perturbations strategy was applied during one-step electrodeposition, and the results are compared with the traditional one-step electrodeposition where no mechanical perturbations were applied. In both cases, a potentiostatic mode was employed, where DC potential is applied to the working electrode with respect to the reference electrode; the potential is regulated by the current at an auxiliary electrode. The CIGS films obtained from both strategies were analyzed as electrodeposited and after being annealed in a selenium atmosphere. The annealed film morphology obtained with the potentiostatic mode plus periodical mechanical perturbations was denser and more compact than the film without mechanical perturbations. Using contour lines, the morphology evolution and mass transport distribution on the working electrode during the electrodeposition process are explained.
Part of the book: Perturbation Methods with Applications in Science and Engineering