This chapter examines the flow of swirling liquid in a duct. In many cases, circumferential velocity in the cross-section of a cylindrical duct is a remarkably linear function of radius up to the proximity of the duct wall. This is similar to the behaviour of a twisting solid shaft and the analogy leads to a solid body model for swirl flow in ducts. Helically profiled lobate duct walls provide a twisting torque, while wall friction in simple circular ducts causes swirl to decay. The liquid counterpart of the solid body is represented as a first-order system in downstream distance because of the way torque is transmitted by duct walls rather than by shaft stiffness as in the solid case. The effect of the inertia of the rotating and twisting cylinder is unchanged from its solid counterpart, and damping is related to the viscosity of the liquid acting over the annulus between the rotating liquid cylinder and the duct wall. The shear stress in the liquid is shown to be linearly related to the intensity of the swirl. The generation of swirl is briefly described with reference to lobate designs, their development of shape and helix.
Part of the book: Swirling Flows and Flames