Ethanol with the molecular formula C2H6O is a clear, colorless, volatile liquid with a pleasant smell made by fermentation of sugar. Ethanol is one of many kinds of alcohol and is the only type of alcohol that can be consumed. Apart from consumption, ethanol is used for several other purposes such as fuel to power engines, as a disinfectant (because of its bactericidal activity), as a solvent and preservative as well as serving as the primary ingredient in the preparation of alcoholic beverages. In this chapter, the author describes how ethanol is metabolized in the body, genetics behind ethanol metabolism, metabolic pathways and hosts for ethanol production, ethanol and malnutrition, why ethanol is considered as a drug and effect of ethanol on neurotransmitter [gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA), glutamate, dopamine, and serotonin] systems. The author further explains the effect of ethanol on antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin).
Part of the book: Psychology of Health
Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, a zoonotic disease that can be transmitted to humans by blood-sucking triatomine bugs. T. cruzi is a single-celled eukaryote with a complex life cycle alternating between reduviid bug invertebrate vectors and vertebrate hosts. This article will look at the developmental stages of T. cruzi in the invertebrate vector and the vertebrate hosts, the different surface membrane proteins involved in different life cycle stages of T. cruzi, roles of different amino acids in the life cycle, carbon and energy sources and gene expression in the life cycle of T. cruzi. The author will also look at extracellular vesicles (EV) and its role in the dissemination and survival of T. cruzi in mammalian host.
Part of the book: Biology of Trypanosoma cruzi