A wide variation of people with an impairment or disability requires a “special care dentistry” once their general manifestations directly act in the oral cavity. This target public is inserted into the following categories: neuromotor disability, sensory disability, mental disorder, infecto-contagious diseases, chronic systemic diseases, and systemic conditions. Among the several oral illnesses found in these groups, periodontal diseases have been the most frequent, becoming a major challenge for the dental practitioners. Thus, we described the microbiological, histopathological, and clinical features of periodontal diseases in each “special health care needs” group. Advances in “Omic” technologies have suggested the application of molecular biology methods to assess the genomics (genes), proteomics (proteins), transcriptomics (mRNA), and metabolomics (metabolites) aspects of periodontal diseases. These researches aim to promote a better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and in the identification of new biomarkers of periodontal diseases that help in diagnosis of periodontal diseases and in tissue responses after treatments of gingivitis and periodontitis. As an alternative therapy, some bioactive materials and photobiomodulation may be indicated once they strongly stimulate the periodontal tissue regeneration, attenuate the inflammatory processes, and/or promote the reconstruction of the microstructure of the periodontium.
Part of the book: Periodontology and Dental Implantology