Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is characterized by erythematous, epithelial desquamation, erosion of the gingival epithelium, and blister formation on the gingiva. DG is a clinical feature of a variety of diseases or disorders. Most cases of DG are associated with mucocutaneous diseases, the most common ones being lichen planus, mucous membrane pemphigoid, and pemphigus vulgaris. Proper diagnosis of the underlying cause is important because the prognosis varies, depending on the disease. This chapter presents the underlying etiology that is most commonly associated with DG. The current literature on the diagnostic and management modalities of patients with DG is reviewed.
Part of the book: Insights into Various Aspects of Oral Health
Early signs and symptoms of autoimmune bullous diseases such as mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) or pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop in the oral cavity in almost all cases. Desquamative gingivitis (DG) is a clinical manifestation common to several diseases or disorders and is frequently associated with autoimmune bullous diseases. This is a retrospective study of 37 patients with MMP (24 cases) or PV (13 cases) including 10 males and 27 females with a mean age of 58.4 years. The study indicates that DG is an early sign of autoimmune bullous diseases such as MMP or PV. About 70.3% of the oral lesions were confined only to the gingiva, and DG was the only manifestation of the diseases. Since some lesions remain limited to the oral cavity for a long period of time, patients diagnosed with MMP or PV should be closely followed because they must be immediately referred to other experts when they develop lesions on parts of their body other than the oral cavity. The oral healthcare provider should collaborate with other healthcare experts including dermatologists, ophthalmologists, and otolaryngologists to evaluate and manage patients with autoimmune bullous diseases in the oral cavity.
Part of the book: Periodontology and Dental Implantology
Autoimmune bullous diseases are a group of rare, chronic blistering diseases that affects the skin and mucous membranes. Mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) is the most frequently occurring autoimmune bullous disease in the oral cavity, followed by pemphigus vulgaris (PV). Early diagnosis of MMP or PV is critical for proper management and prevention of potential serious complications. This study was based on a retrospective review of 39 cases that were classified as MMP (25 patients) or PV (14 patients). Nikolsky’s sign characterized by epithelial detachment as a result of slight pressure or rubbing the oral mucosa is a simple test that can confirm the existence of gingival desquamation. A positive reaction was confirmed in 38 patients (97.4%) at their first visit. This result indicates that patients showing positive Nikolsky’s sign should include MMP or PV in the differential diagnosis and, in that case, histopathological examination and direct immunofluorescence testing are critical to establish the final diagnosis. For the early diagnosis of autoimmune bullous disorders, oral healthcare providers should consider the use of the test for Nikolsky’s sign that may ultimately lead to the early diagnosis of MMP and PV or other diseases or disorders.
Part of the book: Gingival Disease