Open fractures are common and their prevalence is increasing in elderly people. The burden of open fractures is high because of economic and social costs. Most open fractures occur in lower limbs. The use of validated protocols, will optimize our outcomes when treating open fractures. The first step began with the proper identification of the fracture characteristics and the hidden soft tissue injury. The use of an adequate and early antibiotic prophylaxis is mandatory and then, we have to perform adequate irrigation and debridement. Finally, we have to decide to temporally fix the fracture or proceed with the definitive fixation method. Recently, the creation of dedicated “orthoplastic” units has increased the outcomes in high-energy tibial fractures. These fractures should be managed in adequate trauma centers that should be used to face all the complications that will appear during the reconstruction procedure because complications can be as high as 50% in high-energy open fractures.
Part of the book: Trauma Surgery
Rotator cuff tears are a common cause of pain and disability among adults. Partial tears are usually treated conservatively. Complete tears might be treated conservatively in some cases; however, surgical repair is often performed in selected cases and situations where conservative treatment fails to restore function and pain relief. In addition, some patients with acute tears might be good candidates for acute surgical repair, as will be studied in this chapter. A plethora of techniques is available to repair rotator cuff tears. Among these, the surgeon faces the dilemma to choose the best treatment for the patient. Open techniques were the gold standard in the 1990s. However, the advent of arthroscopy has led the shoulder and sports surgeon community towards these. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair has become the gold standard nowadays despite the lack of proper evidence to support this change. Furthermore, simple single-row repairs had been discarded favouring double-row techniques, yet new evidence supports the use of the former due to similar results, simplicity and cost-effectiveness. This chapter examines current evidence to help the surgeon decide between open and minimally invasive techniques and select suitable repair configurations.
Part of the book: Shoulder Surgery for RC Pathology, Arthropathy and Tumors