The geochemical fractionation of metals in soils and sediments corresponds to a technique to evaluate the levels of contamination and their probability of transfer to bodies of water and biota. For environmental studies in water reservoirs, the results of geochemical fractionation added to physicochemical analysis of water, can define the environmental conditions of metal release. This chapter briefly presents the concept and some fractionation techniques, with emphasis on the BCR methodology, in conjunction with other analyzes of water from the bottom of the reservoir to evaluate the dynamics of Mn mobilization in the Riogrande reservoir in Colombia, as example of practical application of Geochemical Fractionation. The highest proportions of Mn in the sediments of the Riogrande II reservoir were found in the exchangeable fraction and associated with carbonates, however the diffraction analysis did not find carbonated phases. It was concluded that the Mn in the water of the bottom of the Riogrande II reservoir originated especially by processes of desorption of Mn, in addition to reductive dissolution of oxyhydroxides.
Part of the book: Fractionation