The authors reviewed pertinent experimental and clinical data allowing to consider the interest of taking into account the temporal dimension (‘circadian’) for prevention and management of the majority of cancers, i.e., non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The universal importance of circadian rhythms has been acknowledged in animal or human situations regarding carcinogenesis and cancer promotion; cell kinetics, apoptosis, molecular genetics, as well as DNA repair mechanisms, platinum resistance…; molecular targets (i.e., epidermal growth factor reception-EGFR); and all lymphoid and immunology machinery components. Also chronotolerance to all chemotherapeutic agents useful for treating human lung cancer has also been evidenced. A few randomized clinical chronotherapy trials were performed in human NSCLC. One limited trial has shown apparent chronoefficiency, while in another one, chronotolerance to 5-fluorouracil and a platinum derivative were confirmed. The limited improvement of outcome in human NSCLC, even through the use of targeted and biological therapies (such as tyrosine-kinase (TKI) or vascular-endothelial-growth-factor (VEGFR) inhibitors; immunotherapy), allows to consider launching specific trials in human NSCLC aiming at either restoring a normal circadian structure of the host or taking into account circadian variations of specific targets. By now unfortunately, no targeted or immunotherapy trials have been launched considering temporal dimension.
Part of the book: Chronobiology