Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) proliferate in vitro for long periods without losing pluripotency and can be induced to differentiate into various cell types including skeletal muscle cells (SMCs). Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are generated from a preimplantation-stage embryo. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) are derived from somatic cells of both healthy donors and patients with muscle diseases of any age using reprogramming factors. Currently, there are two kinds of protocols to induce skeletal muscle from hPSCs. One type utilizes overexpression of a potent myogenic master regulator, MyoD, to directly induce skeletal muscle. Stepwise induction of skeletal muscle has also been reported by many research groups, but hiPSC-based cell therapy for muscular dystrophy is still experimental. On the other hand, hiPSCs derived from patients with muscle disease are widely used for disease modeling in vitro. Here, we review the recent literature on derivation of skeletal muscle from human pluripotent stem cells and discuss their application.
Part of the book: Muscle Cell and Tissue
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can be isolated from both foetal and adult tissues. Several groups demonstrated that transplantation of MSCs promoted the regeneration of skeletal muscle and ameliorated muscular dystrophy in animal models. Mesenchymal stem cells in skeletal muscle, also known as fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs), are essential for the maintenance of skeletal muscle. Importantly, they contribute to fibrosis and fat accumulation in dystrophic muscle. Therefore, MSCs in muscle are a pharmacological target for the treatment of muscular dystrophies. In this chapter, we briefly update the knowledge on mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells and discuss their therapeutic potential as a regenerative medicine treatment of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Part of the book: Muscular Dystrophy