There are enormous challenges facing wheat storage, which is the most important crop in existence. Wheat is one of the most famous and important plants in human history. There is no country in the world that does not give up wheat yields. Countries of the world vary and differ in their production and consumption of that important plant. Since ancient times, humans have stored wheat grain in special places. Storage areas were developed until the current silos were reached. With large quantities of wheat stored in silos, there are many challenges to the healthy environment of storage. One of the most important challenges facing quality of wheat stored in silos is the spread of conidia and spores of many dangerous fungi on wheat grains. One of studies conducted by the authors proved presence of some of notorious fungi on and inside wheat mass stored in the silo under study. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Circinella umbellata, Gliocladium sp., Penicillium frequentans, P. islandicum, and Ulocladium atrum were isolated from wheat samples. All seven isolated fungi demonstrated their ability to analyze human red blood cells with different strengths. These results are consistent with previous studies that confirm the seriousness of presence of these fungi on the health of dealers and exposers especially with bad storage and humidity.
Part of the book: Global Wheat Production
Organic fertilizer is the core of organic farming, which represents the most important way to provide crops and agricultural products that are safe and free of any chemical components and pesticides. From this point of view, the purpose of this study is to provide a source of organic fertilizers which was formerly an environmental problem. The northwestern region of Saudi Arabia is flourishing with olive production, leaving huge amounts of residues called olive press cake (OPC). These wastes are a major environmental pollution despite their good content of carbohydrates, protein, oil and cellulose alongside phenols and lignin. We tested the cultivation of Gliocladium roseum, Pythium oligandrum and Trichoderma harzianum and the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on OPC in order to reduce the high percentage of phenols that impede the germination of some plant seeds. Gliocladium roseum, Pythium oligandrum and Pleurotus ostreatus were able to reduce the percentage of phenols to more than 40% and thus support germination of seeds of Eruca sativa. This study gave than one benefit: firstly, reducing phenols that impede the germination of seeds. Secondly, Gliocladium roseum and Pythium oligandrum work against some plant diseases and also produce plant-like hormones that increase growth of plants.
Part of the book: Soil Productivity Enhancement