Cardiovascular diseases such as stroke, coronary artery disease, and thrombosis remain a global health burden. Understanding the mechanism of these diseases paves the way for development of prophylactics/therapeutics. It is well known at cellular levels; the pathophysiology of most of the cardiovascular disease involves a complicated yet coordinated signaling networks triggered in response to either cellular or tissue levels of hypoxic milieu. Information related to types of hypoxia and signaling mechanism associated to such complications if complied and presented in a comprehensive manner shall prove relevant in proposing common therapeutic targets for wide array of cardiovascular complications. The relative functional roles of hypoxia-triggered signaling pathways are also an area of current research. Based upon these facts, this chapter discusses the types of hypoxia and role of hypoxia-mediated signaling pathways in various types of commonly occurring cardiovascular disorders.
Part of the book: Hypoxia and Anoxia
Vitamin D known for its vital role in diverse biological function such as calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, also exert an anticoagulant effect emphasizing its essential role in the thrombosis pathogenesis. Thrombosis is the formation and propagation of a blood clot or thrombus either in the arterial or the venous system resulting in several severe complications. Various studies have also reported the association of vitamin D deficiency with the increased incidences of thromboembolism. This may be in part due to its anticoagulant effects through upregulation of thrombomodulin, an anticoagulant glycoprotein, and downregulation of Tissue Factor, a critical coagulation factor. The protective effects of vitamin D and its receptor in endothelial cells may further explain some of the reported beneficial effects of vitamin D in the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Additionally, the immunomodulatory role of vitamin D has been observed through its ability to alter the secretion of inflammatory cytokines that can induce a procoagulant milieu by multiple pathways. Therefore, it becomes pertinent to discuss the close link between vitamin D and human health and to improve our knowledge of the molecular pathways regulated or influenced by vitamin D and its associated metabolites.
Part of the book: Vitamin D