Intrauterine devices (IUDs) represent one of the most important methods used for contraception. The methods vary in terms of efficiency, acceptability, costs, and potential complications. Early methods have been improved, and ultrasound (US) evaluation has become an important tool to diagnose the clear majority of IUDs complications. This chapter presents a comprehensive and up-to-date status regarding the use of intrauterine devices (IUDs) for birth control and family planning. The topics discussed in the manuscript will involve the current knowledge on the history, types, mechanisms, health benefits, and risks. More, the present paper presents the medical techniques for inserting and removing a IUD, and the role of US to confirm proper IUD placement. Also, this chapter offers practical guidance in managing problems of continuing users and discusses the clinical circumstances that require reconsideration of the contraception methods.
Part of the book: Family Planning
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most frequent congenital malformations, the costliest hospital admissions for structural defects and the leading cause of infant general and malformations related mortality. Fetal echocardiography represents a skilled ultrasound examination, because of the complexity, physiological and structural particularities of the fetal heart. The efficiency of the cardiac scan is reported with great variation, depending on the scanning protocol, examiner experience and equipment quality but CHDs remains among the most frequently missed congenital abnormalities.
Part of the book: Congenital Anomalies