Latin America has some of the strictest abortion rules in the world, where the procedure is criminal in cases of rape, incest, or even to save the life of the mother. More than 97% of women in Latin America and the Caribbean live in countries where access to abortion is either restricted or banned altogether. As a result, unsafe abortion is widespread and causes 10% of all maternal deaths in the region. With the onset of the Zika virus pandemic in 2015, and the identification of the virus as causing poor pregnancy outcomes including fetal infection, microcephaly, and other malformations, there became an increased demand for abortions in Latin American countries. The response of many Latin American governments to Zika infection during pregnancy was to recommend that women avoid or postpone their pregnancies. These recommendations were not possible for many women at risk in the affected countries, especially those who were uneducated or living in poverty. As a result of the Zika pandemic, there has been an increased demand for abortion in many of the affected countries that, because of the clandestine and illegal nature of the procedure, carries the heightened risk for additional maternal morbidity and mortality.
Part of the book: Family Planning
Ebola virus and the marburgviruses are distinct filoviruses that share common clinical presentations and clinical management protocols. However, the marburgviruses are not as well known as is their close relative, Ebola virus, and are a much less frequent cause of human outbreaks. Marburg virus disease (MVD) is caused by two marburgviruses that are clinically indistinguishable—Marburg virus and Ravn virus. There is scant information available concerning MVD in pregnancy, but it appears clear that, similar to Ebola virus, MVD infection is associated with an extremely high maternal and fetal mortality rate. This chapter will examine what is known about Marburg and Ravn virus infections in pregnant women, their clinical outcomes, and the pathogenesis of MVD in experimental animal models of infection. These data will be compared with the more comprehensive information available regarding Ebola virus disease in pregnancy including its effects on pregnant women and the fetus.
Part of the book: Emerging Challenges in Filovirus Infections