Fast development in the wind power industry in Poland resulted in construction of numerous wind farms, mainly in the north and center of the country. The construction of a wind power station is connected with a change in the structure of the landscape through location of new dominant and subdominant landscape elements. The goal of the work was to determine the previous practices of locating wind farms in Poland, effects resulting from the presence of wind turbines in the landscape, and guidelines for designing wind farms in the context of impact on the landscape. Until 2016, spatial planning lacked in clear regulations on locating wind turbines. In 2016, Poland passed new laws regulating the minimum distance of wind turbines from residential and mixed-use buildings. Based on selected examples of wind farms in West Pomerania Province and Kuyavian-Pomeranian Province, it was found that the existing wind turbines do not comply with the requirements of the minimum distance. Also, there were cases of damaging the esthetics of protected landscape areas. The appearance of new dominant elements of the landscape, i.e., wind power plants, may cause substantial transformations in the landscape, mainly in Northern and Central Poland.
Part of the book: Landscape Architecture