Industrialization and rapid population growth, especially after the second half of the twentieth century, have also revealed significant environmental problems in the world. The consistent and alarming increase in the human population has again threatened the world’s food security. It is becoming increasingly clear that conventional agricultural practices cannot sustain the production base, a healthy plant-soil system, for too long. There is a growing worldwide demand for compatible environmentally friendly techniques in agriculture, capable of providing adequate nourishment for the increasing human population and of improving the quality and quantity of certain agricultural products. For these reasons, the application of beneficial microorganisms is an important alternative to some of the traditional agricultural techniques which very often severely alter the agro-ecosystem balance and cause serious damage to health. Beneficial microorganisms can play a key role in this major challenge, as they fulfill important ecosystem functions for plants and soil. Utilization of these microorganisms affects plant’s growth and yield in a positive way. Besides, their favorable effects on root growth help plants to deal with both biotic and abiotic stress factors. PGPR and mycorrhizae can influence higher plants response to abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity through different mechanisms.
Part of the book: Physical Methods for Stimulation of Plant and Mushroom Development
In modern agriculture, application of beneficial microorganisms has become more reliable and alternative source to reduce the application of pesticides. Several studies demonstrate that the beneficial microorganisms like arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Pseudomonas species, Trichoderma species etc. increase the plant growth and their and also improve the quality of soil. Additionally, these microorganisms increase the resistance of host plants against biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present chapter; vegetable crops in horticultural systems were focused. Most of the vegetable crop form symbiotic relationship with mycorrhiza acting as a bridge for the flow of energy and matter between plants and soils. The symbiotic relationship includes most species of vegetables and some species of fungi that have great relevance to soil ecosystem functions, especially nutrient dynamics, microbial processes, plant ecology, and agriculture. AMF can improve the nutrient and water uptake, induce tolerance of abiotic and biotic stress of their host plants. In the sustainable agriculture, the association of soil microorganisms with plant roots can also be exploited and in this way improve plant growth and productivity under normal and stressful environment. As a result, mycorrhizae improves plant growth, root structure development and crop yield and quality in almost any ambient condition. In addition, another benefit of mycorrhizae is that plants are resistant to diseases. it is concluded that arbuscular mycorrhizal infused pepper seedlings have high yield and quality. And also arbuscular mycorrhizae can be recommended for high yield and quality crop.
Part of the book: Mycorrhizal Fungi