Fibrinogen (Fg) is one of the biomarkers of inflammation and a high risk factor for many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Elevated levels of Fg (hyperfibrinogenemia, HFg) are also associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI). HFg in blood alters vascular reactivity and compromises integrity of endothelial cell layer that ultimately can result in extravasation of Fg and other plasma proteins. Proteins deposited in extravascular space may form plaques which can lead to neurodegeneration. Among these plasma proteins are amyloid beta (Aβ) and/or cellular prion protein (PrPC) that can form degradation resistant complexes with Fg and are known to be involved in memory impairment. The purpose of this chapter is to propose and discuss some possible mechanisms involved in HFg-mediated cerebrovascular dysfunction leading to neuronal degeneration during TBI.
Part of the book: Traumatic Brain Injury