This chapter focuses on the development and application of zero water discharge (ZWD) system, which has become an alternative solution to conventional methods of aquaculture production. With this system, it is expected to answer many issues in aquaculture cultivation, such as environmental damage, disease outbreak, and land-use change, and to create a sustainable aquaculture cultivation system. ZWD system is an improved batch system with an emphasis on microbial manipulation in rearing tank. The principle of microbial selection is based on the role of each microbial component in nutrient cycle in the rearing tank. This chapter contains in detail how methods and stages are performed in order to conduct this system, including design of construction system, cultivation of microbial components, initial conditioning of this system, and microbial manipulation. The performance of the system was tested in crustacean culture such as white shrimp and giant freshwater prawns, and it showed that the system can increase the average survival rate of 10–20%. In addition, the technical and economic feasibility of this system was evaluated to illustrate the production efficiency upon the application of this system in the industry.
Part of the book: Biological Resources of Water
Oil palm are among the best known and most extensively cultivated plant families, especially Indonesia and Malaysia. Many common products and foods are derived from oil palm, its making them one of the most economically important plants. On the other hand, declining supply of raw materials from natural resources has motivated researchers to find alternatives to produce new materials from sustainable resources like oil palm. Oil palm waste is possibly an ideal source for cellulose-based natural fibers and particles. Generally, oil palm waste such as oil palm empty fruit bunches, oil palm trunk, oil palm shell and oil palm ash are good source of biomaterials. Lack of sufficient documentation of existing scientific information about the utilization of oil palm waste raw materials for biomaterial production is the driving force behind the this chapter. Incorporation of various types of biomaterial derived from oil palm waste resources as reinforcement in polymer matrices lead to the development of biocomposites products and this can be used in wide range of potential applications. Properties and characterization of biomaterial from oil palm waste will not only help to promote further study on nanomaterials derived from non-wood materials but also emphasize the importance of commercially exploit oil palm waste for sustainable products.
Part of the book: Palm Oil