Addressing major environmental issues, such as water pollution, is essential nowadays in realizing sustainable development. The ever-increasing world population and industrial development have led to the introduction of different types of chemicals to the environment, leading to considerable deterioration in environmental quality. A major class of these chemicals is phenolic compounds, which are hazardous pollutants and highly toxic even at low concentrations. In recent years, researchers have realized the importance of extracting new bacterial strains that are effective in treating different types of highly contaminated wastewaters at different severe conditions. They also focused considerable amount of research on developing new types of reactors that would provide efficient mixing and reduce mass transfer limitations. The aim is to develop and evaluate effective reactor systems and biocatalysts for the biodegradation of major contaminants in petroleum refinery wastewater. This chapter examines the different available options for the treatment of refinery wastewater with more focus on novel biotreatment options.
Part of the book: Recent Insights in Petroleum Science and Engineering