Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) and portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) are mucosal lesions that can cause chronic gastrointestinal bleeding in the patients with cirrhosis. While PHG occurs exclusively in patients with liver cirrhosis, GAVE can also present in patients with systemic and autoimmune conditions. The need to accurately characterize these two conditions is dependent on clinical, endoscopic, and histological parameters. The management of GAVE utilizes endoscopic ablation techniques, while medical therapy is directed toward stabilizing portal pressure in patients with PHG. Herein, we review the epidemiology, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and medical, endoscopic, and surgical management of GAVE and PHG.
Part of the book: Stomach Disorders