Information on goat genome has led to a better understanding of the genetics of goats, its response to infection and the underlying immune response mechanism. Natural product-based therapeutic can therefore be utilized to target genes important for goat immunity. In this chapter, we have summarized the effect of diet and dietary supplements as immune modulators in goats. These modulators affect the expression of genes and secreted proteins associated with innate and adaptive immune response and homeostasis. Probiotics, mushroom extracts, plant polyphenol extracts, Sericea lespedeza (SL) and cowpea diet affect key molecular pathways including Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, Wnt signaling pathway and cytokine-mediated signaling pathway. Results from various studies reviewed in this chapter suggest that utilization of dietary immunomodulators has beneficial effects on goat health and production.
Part of the book: Goat Science
Probiotics are viable microorganisms with beneficial health effects for humans and animals. They are formulated into many functional foods and animal feed. There is a growing research interest in the application and benefits of probiotics in ruminant production. Several recent studies have evaluated the potential of probiotics in animal nutrition and health. In this chapter, we have reviewed current research on the benefits of probiotics on gut microbial communities in ruminants and their impact on ruminant production, health and overall wellbeing.
Part of the book: Probiotics