Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary myeloid masses with associated tissue damage. Myeloid sarcomas usually arise before, during or after diagnosis of acute leukemia, most often AML. Majority of the patients with myeloid sarcoma respond to upfront systemic chemotherapy and sometimes bone marrow transplant, but it is unclear which patients will benefit from which treatments. This is primarily due to the paucity of knowledge on myeloid sarcoma. At present, there are no prognostic biomarkers for myeloid sarcoma, which can help in risk stratification in patients with myeloid sarcoma. Several studies have suggested that myeloid sarcoma is more likely to occur with certain translocations such as CBF and MLL rearrangements. In addition, sequencing analysis has identified several mutations in genes such as FLT3, NPM1, EZH2, and KIT. Nevertheless, there is still lack of knowledge to understand why particular leukemia migrates to the skin and soft tissues and becomes refractory to systemic therapy.
Part of the book: Hematology