Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) technologies have been applied to study brain physiology and, more recently, have been recognized for their therapeutic potential as an adjunctive treatment for various neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electric stimulation (tES) are two of the most studied NIBS modalities in Parkinson’s disease. They are non-systemic and relatively safe. Most therapeutic trials have been conducted to ameliorate motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) with overall positive results using various stimulation modalities and methods. Notwithstanding significant results, evidence has not yet been compelling mainly due to small-size studies, lack of standardization of methodologies and other study design limitations. NIBS hold promise for treatment of PD symptoms and PD related complications. Large, well designed clinical trials are needed to corroborate these positive findings and inform its durability and the overall clinical relevance for the treatment of PD.
Part of the book: Parkinson's Disease