Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative brain disorder presenting with motor signs and symptoms, such as akinesia, rest tremor, rigidity, and later in disease progression postural instability. However, nonmotor symptoms may harm patients’ quality of life even more than the motor ones. The etiopathogenesis is not clear yet. PD may develop due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors. It is treated symptomatically with dopaminergic drugs. The gold standard of PD management is L-Dopa, however also other drugs are frequently used, such as dopamine agonists, MAOB inhibitors, COMT inhibitors, and occasionally amantadine and anticholinergic drugs. Many patients experience several adverse events of L-Dopa treatment, such as different motor complications. Furthermore, nonmotor adverse events of dopaminergic treatment may occur. The efficacy of drugs varies between patients as well. Several polymorphic genes have already been associated with treatment outcome in PD, such as metabolic enzymes, transport and receptor genes, and might serve as treatment outcome prediction factors. As gene-environment interactions were also shown to contribute to PD development, they might also be able to predict treatment response. Such genetic biomarkers could be helpful in personalized care of PD patients to prevent adverse events and inefficacy of a certain drug.
Part of the book: Parkinson's Disease