Oxidative/nitrosative stress, a pervasive condition of increased amounts of reactive and nitrogen species, is responsible for a variety of degenerative processes in some human diseases such as gastrointestinal affections. Diarrhea is one such infection that has long been recognized as one of the most important health problems in developing countries. Constipation is a delay or difficulty in evacuating the stool. In this respect, several studies were performed and have shown that the diarrhea pathophysiology and constipation were accompanied by accumulation of biomarkers of oxidative/nitrosative stress as well as the depletion of antioxidant system. In this chapter, we discuss about the recent advances that propose a major role of oxidative/nitrosative stress on diarrhea pathogenesis and constipation.
Part of the book: Novel Prospects in Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress
Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) disease is a chronic disease characterized by the recurrent ascension of some of the gastric contents in the esophagus. Indeed, gastric acid secreted by parietal cells and the gastric pepsin activity, but not the intestinal alkaline content, are the most important pathogenic factors of GER. Several pathophysiological mechanisms are involved, the most important of which is the imbalance of the redox state of the esophageal tissue. Indeed, several studies have shown that reflux esophagitis is mediated by oxygen-derived free radicals. In this chapter, we describe the pathophysiology and important pathways, especially acid gastric contents and reactive oxygen species involved in pathology of GER.
Part of the book: Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease