Advances in wireless communications have paved the way for wide usage of mobile phones in modern society, resulting in mounting concerns surrounding its harmful radiation. Energy absorption in human biological tissues can be characterized by specific absorption rate (SAR). This value refers to the actual amount of electromagnetic energy absorbed in the biological tissues, thus a lower value of SAR indicates a lower radiation exposure risk to the human body. So, our challenge is to introduce mobile handset antennas with low SAR and operating at all mobile and wireless applications. In this chapter, novel configurations of single-element antenna are designed, simulated, fabricated, and measured. The antennas operate for most cellular applications: global system for mobile (GSM)-850/900, digital cellular system (DCS)-1800, personal communication service (PCS)-1900, universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS)-2100, and long-term evolution (LTE) bands. The antennas also support wireless applications. The proposed antennas have a compact size and low SAR at all bands. Also, this chapter presents a comprehensive study on the performance of the antenna in the different environments. Furthermore, the antenna performance is tested in the presence of head and hand in free space and in a car. The simulation and measurement results are in good agreement.
Part of the book: Microstrip Antennas