In the last few years, bio‐inspired solutions have attracted the attention of the scientific community. Several world‐renowned institutions have sponsored and created laboratories in order to understand the forms, functions and behavior of living organisms. Some methods can be highlighted in the search for geometric representation of the shapes found in the nature, the fractal geometry, the polar geometry, and the superformula of Gielis. This chapter is focusing on bio‐inspired microstrip antennas, especially on leaf‐shaped antennas from the Gielis superformula that open a vast research field for more compact antennas with low visual impact.
Part of the book: Microstrip Antennas
Due to the recent miniaturization of wireless devices, the use of wearable antennas is steadily increasing. A wearable antenna is intended to be a part of the clothing used for communication purposes. In this way, a lower visual cost may be achieved. Recently, biologically inspired design, a kind of design by cross-domain analogy is a promising paradigm for innovation as well as low visual cost. The shapes of the plants are structures optimized by nature with the primary goal of light energy capture, transforming it into chemical energy. In this case, they have similar behavior to that of parabolic reflectors; this enables microwave engineers design innovative antennas using bio-inspired concepts. One of the advantages of using bio-inspired plant shapes is the design of antennas with great perimeters in compact structures. Thus, we have small antennas operating in low frequencies. This chapter presents the recent development in bio-inspired wearable antennas, easily integrated to the clothes and accessories used by the body, built in denim, low-cost flexible dielectric, and polyamide flexible dielectric, that is flexible with high resistance to twists and temperatures, for wireless body area network (WBAN) applications, operating in cellular mobile (2G, 3G, and 4G) and wireless local area network (2.4 and 5 GHz) protocols.
Part of the book: Wearable Technologies