Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infections in both the community as well in hospital settings. It is mostly caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNBs). Over the past two decades, GNBs have developed complex mechanisms of resistance against most of the potent antibiotics. This has been a global challenge which has been identified by the World Health Organization as “one of the greatest threats to human health.” This crisis is mostly attributed to the overuse and misuse of these medications, as well as lack of new drug antimicrobials by the pharmaceutical industry. This resulted in prolonged hospital stay, marked increase in the cost as well as increase in morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, it increases the risks and complications of urological procedures. In this chapter, we review the management of the most common and challenging group of resistant Gram-negative organisms, the extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing organisms (ESBL) and the carbapenem-resistant organisms (CRE/CRP). The latter group includes carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), as well as Pseudomonas aeruginosa carbapenemases (CRP). When treating these infections, clinicians have few effective antimicrobials options. A critical step in managing these organisms is the early recognition and appropriate empiric therapy. Both showed morbidity and mortality benefits.
Part of the book: Urinary Tract Infection