The main requirement to the materials used to make membranes polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEM FC) is the combination of high proton conductivity and resistance to the FC operation conditions. Thus, the search for inexpensive and high-performance non-fluorinated or partially fluorinated materials for use as FC membranes is an actual task today, since the use of membranes based on perfluorosulfonate acid has a number of disadvantages limiting their application. The aim of this study is the investigation of sulfonated polyimide (SPI) and materials for use as FC membranes. The relevance of research stems from the fact that the use of the SPI will allow to increase the resistance of the membrane to the constantly changing environment in which PEM operates. The objects of research are sulfonated polyimides. SPIs, especially aromatic SPIs, are attractive to researchers, because of the possibility of obtaining a wide variety of chemical structures and also due to their excellent thermal, mechanical properties and high resistance to aggressive media. The results of this study will be methods of obtaining and evaluating the advantages and disadvantages of SPI-based materials. For the first time, special attention will be paid to advanced development based on SPI with the addition of crown-ether fragments.
Part of the book: Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell
The transition to nanosized fillers allows to significantly improve the characteristics of composites while reducing their degree of filling, and in some cases to achieve new properties unattainable with the use of traditional fillers and modifiers. Polymeric nanocomposites have unique barrier properties, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, increased strength, heat resistance, and thermal stability, as well as reduced flammability. It is known that the addition of nanodispersed layered silicates and various forms of carbon nanofillers to polymeric matrices can significantly affect the mechanisms of thermal and thermooxidative destruction and burning of nanocomposites. In this chapter, we compare the properties of composite materials based on nanostructured silicon carbide and carbon nanotubes with modified and unmodified surfaces obtained on three types of polyimide matrices (matrix No. 1 based on pyromellitic dianhydride and 4,4′-oxydianiline, matrix No. 2 based on 3,3‘,4,4’-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride and p-phenylenediamine, and matrix No. 3 based on pyromellitic dianhydride and 4-[4-(4-aminophenoxy) phenoxy] phenylamine). The dynamic viscosity of polyamide acid, the physicomechanical characteristics of film polymer composite materials, the determination of thermal stability, and thermooxidative destruction mechanism of composites were determined.
Part of the book: Characterizations of Some Composite Materials