One of the main problems of gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process is the generation of residual stresses (RS), which has a direct impact on the mechanical performance of welded components. Nevertheless, RS pattern prediction is complex and requires the simulation of the welding process. Consequently, most of the currently used dimensioning approaches do not consider RS, leading to design oversized structures. This fact is especially relevant in big structures since it generates high material, manufacturing and product transportation costs. Nowadays, there are different numerical methods to predict the RS generated in GMAW process, being Goldak’s method one of the most widely used model. However, the use of these methods during the design process is limited, as they require experimentally defining many parameters. Alternatively, in this chapter, a new methodology to define the heat source energy based on the spray welding physics is exposed. The experimental validation of the methodology conducted for a multipass butt weld case shows good agreement in both the temperature pattern (9.16% deviation) and the RS pattern (42 MPa deviation). Finally, the proposed methodology is extended to analyse the influence of the thickness and the number of passes in the RS pattern of thick T-joint welds.
This chapter presents a general background and the state of the art of numerical simulation and modeling of fretting phenomenon in terms of wear, fatigue and fracture. First, an introduction of fretting and its implications is exposed. Second, different methodologies for wear modeling and simulation are described and discussed. Afterwards, fatigue and fracture analysis approaches are revised. To that end, multiaxial fatigue parameters are introduced putting an emphasis on the physical basis of the fretting phenomena and the suitability of each model. On the other hand, the propagation phase based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) via the finite element method (FEM) and the eXtended finite element method (X-FEM) analysis methods is presented and compared. Finally, different approaches and latest developments for fretting fatigue lifetime prediction are presented and discussed.
Part of the book: Contact and Fracture Mechanics