Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic and multifactorial disease strongly linked to a low-grade inflammatory process. Thus far, type 2 DM is generally regarded as an incurable disease by common therapies. However, very low-calorie diet (VLCD) regimens have demonstrated beneficial and rapid effects on glucose metabolism in subjects with type 2 DM. These beneficial effects include improvement of diabetes complications, insulin sensitivity and reduction in glycaemia, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), and triglyceride levels. VLCD regimens commonly comprise no more than 800 kcal/day and are therefore associated with rapid weight loss in overweight and obese individuals. This group of diets positively affects local/systemic inflammation and oxidative stress (OS) by modulating inflammatory cytokines, adipokines and endogenous antioxidant levels. The investigation of VLCDs in the field of type 2 DM treatment is progressively augmenting due to the multiple benefits in cardiometabolic health of overweight/obese subjects with type 2 DM. Here, we gather and review the evidence regarding the role of inflammation and OS in individuals with type 2 DM under VLCD regimens.
Part of the book: Diabetes and Its Complications