Water is connected to every forms of life on earth. As a criteria, an adequate, reliable, clean, accessible, acceptable and safe drinking water supply has to be available for various users. The United Nation (UN) and other countries declared access to safe drinking water as a fundamental human right, and an essential step towards improving living standards. Access to water was one of the main goal of Millinium Development Goals (UN-MDGs) and it is also one of the main goal of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The UN-SDG goal 6 states that “Water sustains life, but safe clean drinking water defines civilization”. Despite these facts, there are inequalities in access to safe drinking water in the world. In some countries, sufficient freshwater is not available (physical scarcity); while in other countries, abundant freshwater is available, but it is expensive to use (economic scarcity). The other challenge is the increasing population of the world at an alarming rate, while the available freshwater resources almost remains constant. This chapter presents aspects of safe drinking water - background information, definition of water safety and access, benefits, principles and regulations, factors challenging the sustainable water supply and water quality standards and parameters.
Part of the book: Water Challenges of an Urbanizing World
Although the spate irrigation system is an ancient practice, it is only in the past very few decades the system has undergone little modernization interventions. However, these interventions were mostly in the aspects of heavy investment in the sophisticated head works for improving flood water diversion efficiency. In many cases, the modernization interventions were not successful due to various problems such as heavy sedimentation, high flood, disturbed local water distribution rules, or the new designs were not coherent with home-grown practices. On the other hand, successful improvements incorporate less labor intensive and relatively permanent structures with the advantages of conventional systems without considerably altering the approach of the spate irrigation practice. Thus, in this chapter, the techniques of improving traditional spate irrigation systems were reviewed. Farmer-implemented improved traditional spate irrigation systems: flow diversions; canals and control structures; management of sediment, field water, and soil moisture and agronomic practices; reactive water rights and distribution rules were assessed. Therefore, this chapter helps as a reference material for teaching, training and research activities, and it plays a great role in the efforts of sustainable spate irrigation systems development, rehabilitation and management programs.
Part of the book: Landscape Architecture
Rainfall data available, in tropical regions with undulating topography, may provide a valuable information for water resource development as well as for predicting and preventing natural disasters. But in developing countries like Ethiopia, rain gauge stations are sparsely populated, and rainfall data are the limiting factor. Hence, estimation of rainfall is extremely important. The current paper deals with the development of a rainfall-altitude relationship for Matahara area, Awash Basin of Ethiopia. A conceptual rainfall-altitude regression model was formulated and its performance evaluated. The relationship between monthly rainfall totals and gauge elevation over Matahara region (including Lake Basaka catchment) was examined using the conceptual regression model (ordinary least square). The regression parameters were identified and estimated and then used to map the spatial rainfall for Lake Basaka catchment in ArcGIS. The regression analysis showed a strong positive correlation (r = 0.85) between the long-term average monthly rainfall and altitude of the region. It is shown that the rate of increase of rainfall with altitude is in the range of 0.020 mm/h at Matahara to 0.067 at Welenchiti, with average value of 0.0475 mm/m/month. The best fit (R2 = 0.9187, p = 0.015) was obtained between observed and estimated rainfall depths for all the stations with total standard error of 12.97 mm. The high R2 reveals that the developed equation is acceptable for the area at 98.5% (p > 0.015) confidence limit. The performance of the developed model is found to be within reasonable accuracy, which is limited by the elevation difference and distance from the base station. Therefore, the spatial and temporal structures of rainfall distribution (daily, monthly or annual) for Matahara region (including Basaka Lake catchment) can be determined from the available records of rainfall data at the Matahara Research Station (Merti) meteorological station with acceptable reliability. In general, the performance of the developed model is found to be within reasonable accuracy, which is limited by the elevation difference and distance from the base station.
Part of the book: Topics in Hydrometerology