Paracentrotus lividus gonads represent a valued gourmet delicacy, particularly appreciated in Europe and in Japan. Their commercial value is generally associated to their size, freshness, colour and texture. Diet, gametogenesis and environmental conditions have a marked influence, promoting the indispensable mechanisms of synthesis, selective storage and mobilization of the bioactive compounds, as lipids, proteins and carbohydrates of gonads in order to obtain nutrients. The objective of this work is to compare the morphological and biochemical profiles of reproductive life cycle of the gonads of adult P. lividus in its marine natural environment and adult captured sea urchins breeding into a fish aquaculture system. The reproductive cycle of male and female wild and breeding P. lividus was characterized during 1 year by analysing variations of the gonadal content of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates of animals captured at four different locations of the south-western coast of Salento, Italy, with the animals grown in a fish farm and fed with four different types of diet. The gonadal and repletion indexes were determined before the specimen dissection for evaluation of sex, development stages and physiological aspects. Gonads were processed for histological and biochemical analysis. The gonadal content of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates was performed by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and by spectrometry, respectively.
Part of the book: Sea Urchin
Extra virgin olive oil has been mainly produced and consumed in Mediterranean countries since ancient times; olive oil is one of the principal ingredients in the Mediterranean diet, and it constitutes the main source of nutritional fat. Aside from the high nutritional content of olive oil, it is also known for its cosmetic and therapeutic properties. In 1956, Thiers obtained satisfactory results in the treatment of scleroderma, stating that olive oil and its derivatives could be considered “a new group of therapeutic agents.” Hincky reported the beneficial properties of olive oil in the treatment of dry, senescent and sensitive skins. This has opened a new perspective for the use of the olive fruit, thus contributing to the increase in research about new applications. One such application is ozonized olive oil, which combines the properties of ozone with those of olive oil, to obtain a peerless compound. The composition of olive oil makes it a suitable vehicle for cutaneous absorption, as it is able to stabilize ozone, which is a highly reactive molecule. The oxidant power of ozone has interesting effects on microorganism and on wound healing.
Part of the book: Herbal Medicine