Oral health is an important aspect of the overall health status of an individual. DNA damage has been associated with oral health and dental factors due to the increased of oxidative stress (OxS). DNA damage can produce a wide range of effects on human health. These effects could appear immediately, but others do not become evident much later. Chronic diseases have been study to understand their mechanisms, clinical implications, and the development of secondary disease such as cancer. Periodontitis is one of the most common oral diseases. It is an inflammatory chronic infectious disease, which is characterized by the loss of supporting tissues and tooth loss caused by periodontopathogens and long-term release of reactive oxygen species (ROS); thus, oxidative stress is increased during periodontitis. Oxidative stress can produce DNA damage, including the oxidation of nucleosides, which could cause DNA strand break. This oxidative damage leads the formation of micronuclei (MN) a marker of nuclear damage. Also, oxidative stress increased 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine levels which are the most common stable product of oxidative DNA damage.
Part of the book: Insights into Various Aspects of Oral Health