In this chapter, we present information about the design, fabrication and characterization of optical waveguides obtained by using a protocol of multiple energy ion implantations. This protocol must provide an approach to produce optical waveguides with adequate features, such as dimensions, evanescent field and optical confinement. In general, optical waveguides can be improved by widening the optical barrier or waveguide core through multiple energy ion implantations. Design of optical waveguides must consider effects induced by the ion implantation process, such as modification of substrate density, polarizability and structure. Information will be presented about optical waveguides formed mainly in laser crystals (i.e., Nd:YAG, Nd:YVO4) using light ions such as H and He+ and heavy ions such as C2+. In general, these ions decrease the refractive index in the implanted area, producing a barrier that permits guiding in the region near the surface. Furthermore, information about nonlinear optical properties of channel waveguides containing metallic nanoparticles is presented. Composite materials containing metallic nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric matrix such as silica possess interesting properties due to surface plasmon resonance absorption features and the enhancement of the third-order nonlinear optical response. Therefore, nonlinear optical properties in composite waveguides can be used in all-optical switching devices.
Part of the book: Ion Implantation