It has been centuries since humans consume coffee and get the benefits of this bean. Many researches worldwide continue to show healthful properties of coffee, while others suggest a number of side effects. In fact, anything consumed in excess may cause disturbance of the body functioning, whereas caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that increases focus and improves performance, its high concentration can cause insomnia, dizziness, and vomiting. Thus, the question is: which coffee dose promotes benefits and prevents risks? To answer it, we used the zebrafish, a popular animal model that is at the vanguard of psychopharmacological research due to its unique combination of complexity and simplicity, translational relevance and applicability to high throughput behavioral drug screens. In the current study, we examine time-course and dose-dependent changes in zebrafish following exposure to caffeine. Our data show an inverted U-shaped path for the locomotor parameters and crescent path for the anxiety-like parameters. High doses are harmful to the individual, because the stimulating effect disappears and anxiogenic effects take place. We conclude that temporal analysis of zebrafish behavior is a sensitive method for the study of acute caffeine exposure–induced functional changes in the vertebrate brain.
Part of the book: The Question of Caffeine
In the recent years, a new branch of physical training has emerged, the high-intensity interval training (HIIT). In contrast to continued exercise regime used in most of the trainings, HIIT proposes a regime of short periods of maximum intensity exercising and brief less intense recovery periods, which are repeated until complete exhaustion. HIIT is calling the attention of those who search for fast escalation in physical performance; however, the stress caused by this type of training may affect other systems functioning, such as cognition. Thus, we investigated the effects of two physical regime protocols, traditional endurance and HIIT on zebrafish learning, memory, and anxiety-like behavior. To that, fish were trained for 30 days and submitted to a latent learning test, objects discrimination test, and novel tank test. Our results showed that HIIT does not affect long lasting memory, evaluated through the latent learning task, but it impairs discriminative learning. On the other hand, both training protocols decrease anxiety-like behavior. This study confirms that zebrafish show good performance in learning tasks and that cognitive performance is dependent upon the regime of physical exercise and cognitive task used.
Part of the book: Recent Advances in Zebrafish Researches