Continuous advancements in technology and software algorithms for pacemakers and implantable cardioverter‐defibrillators (ICDs) have improved functional reliability and broadened their diagnostic capabilities. At the same time, understanding management and troubleshooting of modern devices has become increasingly complex for the device implanter. This chapter provides an overview of the underlying physics and basic principles important to pacemaker and ICD function. The second part of this chapter outlines common device problems encountered in patients with pacemakers and ICDs and provides solutions and tips for troubleshooting.
Part of the book: Interpreting Cardiac Electrograms