Identification of atrial fibrillation (AF) mechanisms could improve the rate of ablation success. However, the incomplete understanding of those mechanisms makes difficult the decision of targeting sites for ablation. This work is focused on the importance of EGM analysis for detecting and modulating rotors to guide ablation procedures and improve its outcomes. Virtual atrial models are used to show how nonlinear measures can be used to generate electroanatomical maps to detect critical sites in AF. A description of the atrial cell mathematical models, and the procedure of coupling them within two‐dimensional and three‐dimensional virtual atrial models in order to simulate arrhythmogenic mechanisms, is given. Mathematical modeling of unipolar and bipolar electrogramas (EGM) is introduced. It follows a discussion of EGM signal processing. Nonlinear descriptors, such as approximate entropy and multifractal analysis, are used to study the dynamical behavior of EGM signals, which are not well described by a linear law. Our results evince that nonlinear analysis of EGM can provide information about the dynamics of rotors and other mechanisms of AF. Furthermore, these fibrillatory patterns can be simulated using virtual models. The combination of features using machine learning tools can be used for identifying arrhythmogenic sources of AF.
Part of the book: Interpreting Cardiac Electrograms