Venous thromboembolism (VTE) carries a high morbidity and mortality and leads to a substantial economic burden. From the traditional perspectives, liver cirrhosis tends to bleeding but not VTE. However, modern concepts suggest that liver cirrhosis is also at a risk of VTE. The pooled incidence and prevalence of VTE in liver cirrhosis are 1% (95% confidence interval: 0.7–1.3%) and 1% (95% confidence interval: 0.7–1.2%), respectively. Evidence indicates that a higher international normalized ratio and a lower albumin should be associated with a higher probability of VTE in liver cirrhosis. Additionally, the presence of VTE significantly worsens the outcomes of liver cirrhosis.
Part of the book: Embolic Diseases