This is the Information Age. We can expect that for a particular research question that is empirically testable, we should have a collection of evidence which indicates the best way to proceed. Unfortunately, this is not the case in several areas of empirical research and decision making. Instead, when researchers and policy makers ask a specific question, such as “What is the effectiveness of a new treatment?”, the structure of the evidence available to answer this question may be complex and fragmented (e.g. published experiments may have different grades of quality, observational data, subjective judgments, etc.).
Part of the book: Bayesian Inference