Neuroblastoma is a notably malignant cancer originates from neuroblastoma stem cells during embryogenesis. It can originate from any region of the peripheral nervous system. Neuroblastoma is a heterogeneous cancer. The cells responsible for heterogeneous structure are neuroblastoma stem cells that initiate the cancer and generate into all the cancer cells and have self‐renewal property. Although some specific surface markers and genetic patterns of neuroblastoma stem cell were determined, all mechanisms have not been illuminated yet. Mutations that are specific to neuroblastoma development, risk group, and disease‐stage are identified. However, epigenetic dysregulations also play major roles in the development of neuroblastoma. Patients gradually develop resistance to conventional chemotherapy or relapse occurs after treatment. New therapy approaches have been developed, either as alternatives to conventional chemotherapy, or in combination with it, in order to overcome the handicaps. Targeted therapies, those directly affecting the cancer cell or the cancer stem cell and having a minimal effect on healthy cells, constitute these approaches. Since neuroblastoma is highly heterogeneous both genetically and epigenetically, the data obtained from molecular mechanisms will greatly contribute to the survival of patients.
Part of the book: Neuroblastoma