Introduction: Life expectancy and the rate of survival into old age have risen dramatically throughout the past century. The positive ageing outcomes may be due to a variety of factors including healthy lifestyle behaviors, but it is clear that longevity has a genetic basis, with heritability estimate of 20–35%. In this contest, it was emerged that human longevity seems strongly influenced by gender defined as the combination between biological sexual characteristics and factors related to behavior, social role, lifestyle and life experiences. Body—research methods: Successful ageing seems to be related to gene involved in different pathways of regulation, such as immune-inflammatory responses and oxidative stress. The aims of the present review are to discuss recent findings and highlight the genetic basis of longevity. For these reasons we are aimed to describe the most important underpinning which is the gender differences in longevity between males and females. Conclusion—key results: It appears clear that longevity may represent a complex polygenic trait that is influenced by the interaction of multiple genetic variants, as was demonstrated by several genetic studies conducted in the last years. Furthermore, epigenetic and environmental factors actin on the longevity phenotype.
Part of the book: Senescence