The pathogenesis of psoriasis is complex, and cytokines play an important role in mediating cell-cell interactions that result in abnormal structures and functions of many cell types in psoriasis, such as abnormal proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes, abnormal proliferation of blood vessels, stimulation of immune cells, and driving abnormal immune reactions. In this chapter, we summarize the roles and functions of inflammatory cytokines that play a crucial role in psoriasis such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23, and IL-17, as well as their inhibitors that are used to treat psoriasis.
Part of the book: Psoriasis
Keratins are the epithelia-specific members of intermediate filament superfamily and consist of 54 members. They serve primarily as cytoskeletons, which sustain cell structures. They also influence on cell proliferation and motility by rapidly changing their morphology and distribution through post-translational modification. The expression of keratins genes is regulated by various cytokines and growth factors, mainly through distinct transcription factors. Mutations in keratin genes cause various cutaneous diseases as well as predisposition to inflammatory disorders of internal organ, such as the intestine and the liver. Keratins directly interact signaling molecules, which affects inflammatory processes, and cancer progression. The mechanism of keratin involvement in many diseases will be elucidated in future, which would help identifying novel target for treatment.
Part of the book: Keratin