Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the etiologic agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), primarily infects T cells and cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. This is due to the presence of the cell surface receptor CD4 and the coreceptors, CXCR4, and CCR5. While the T-cell has classically been the cell type associated with HIV-1 disease progression, cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage have also been shown to play a major role in this viral pathologic process. Classically, this has involved monocytic cells in the peripheral blood and tissue macrophages, however, over the course of HIV disease, the promyelomonocytic cells of the bone marrow (BM) have also been shown to play a role in pathogenesis retroviral disease in that they play an integral role in the reseeding of the periphery and end-organ tissues. This has involved an initial infection of the bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cells. Given this observation, over the years there have been a number of cell lines that have been developed and provided valuable insights into research questions surrounding HIV-1 infection of the monocyte-macrophage cell lineage. In this regard, we will examine the biological and immunological properties of these BM-derived cell lines with respect to their utility in exploring the pathogenesis of HIV-1 in humans.
Part of the book: Biology of Myelomonocytic Cells