In this chapter, there is a description of hematopoietic stem cells, maturation curve and their differentiation into myeloid cells, including phenotypes and transcription factors involved in this process. Further, we discuss myeloid maturation curve from myeloid precursor, monoblast, premonocyte to monocytes, and also monocytes subsets regarding their CD14 and CD16 expressions and related functions in health and disease. In addition, we reason about the differentiation from monocytes either in dendritic cells or in macrophages in vitro using differential growth factors; these cells are differentiated from those found in vivo being named as monocyte-derived cells. Furthermore, we explore distinguished phenotype of monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells monocyte-derived in vitro, using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry, in order to display morphological and phenotypic differences among them.
Part of the book: Biology of Myelomonocytic Cells
Lymphocytes belong to the lymphoid lineage and are considered as divergent from other blood cells lineages as those from the myeloid or erythroid lineage. Lymphoid hematopoiesis is not trivial, because although lymphocytes are found in the bloodstream and their precursor originates in the bone marrow, they mainly belong to the separate lymphatic system, which interacts with the blood circulation. We will discuss B cell differentiation in the bone marrow and the later stages of maturation in secondary lymphoid tissues, besides the B cell profiles in interfollicular, perifollicular, and follicular areas. In addition, we will also discuss T-cell precursor and natural killer cells derivation in the marrow. Furthermore, we will also discuss T-cell precursor migration to thymus, differentiation, rearrangement, thymic selection, involved transcription factors, and, finally, T-cell profiles and subsets in secondary lymphoid organs. We will provide flow cytometry plots showing strategies to identify and characterize NK, T and B lymphocytes and their subsets in circulation. Furthermore, we will provide illustrations to help the reader to understand and visualize the information provide over the chapter. Furthermore, the comprehension about lymphocytes and their contribution to the immune response will favor their application in developmental hematology and immunology. These topics are very important for the continuous development of knowledge.
Part of the book: Lymphocyte Updates