Subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) are grave medical emergencies, whereas 30–50% of all SAHs may ultimately result in death. Subarachnoid hemorrhages share many resemblances with other neurological traumas such as a cerebral vascular accident, meningitis, and/or traumatic brain injury. Autoimmune encephalopathies (AE) occur when human antibodies assault the body’s cell surfaces and/or synaptic proteins. Consequently, widespread nervous system and diffuse brain involvement may occur. With subarachnoid hemorrhages and autoimmune encephalopathies, multiple areas of cognition and language can be impaired. Case studies in communication sciences and disorders are underutilized, yet are important in evidenced‐based practice. Speech‐language pathologists in medical settings have worked with patients and families with similar types of disorders. Therefore, speech‐language pathologists should be well equipped to provide therapy with these types of injuries. This chapter presents two case studies and cognitive language rehabilitation strategies following diffuse brain injuries.
Part of the book: Advances in Speech-language Pathology
Hearing loss is very common in the United States and the most widespread disability in the U.S. Hearing loss is the third most chronic health condition in the U.S. Noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) results from damaging external noise. This injury leads to temporarily or permanently affecting sensitive inner ear structures (e.g., cochlea, organ of Corti, and hair cells). NIHL can result from a single high-level noise exposure or repeated exposures to excessively loud noises [i.e., typically 85 dBA or greater, (A weighted decibel)]. Damage to the inner ear can also result from aging (i.e., presbycusis). This case study documents the hearing loss of an otherwise healthy 21-year-old, male individual and his progressive moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss over a period of 41 years. His history will be reported along with his perspective as a speech-language pathologist and speech scientist. The individual with hearing loss has adapted to wearing hearing aids over the last five years. Issues that have occurred affecting comprehension along with compensatory strategies that assisted listening and comprehension will be discussed.
Part of the book: Hearing Loss