An ectopic pregnancy (EP) falls within the area of the gynecological emergency and/or reproductive management of women, which is the implantation of fertilized ovum outside the endometrial cavity. The etiology of EP concentrated mainly on factor causes delayed transport of the fertilized ovum through the fallopian tube (favors implantation in tubal mucosa), thus giving rise to EP. This chapter describes the causes, diagnosis, prevention and the guidelines to improve the management of women who may have an EP, a major gynecological emergency that is a cause of morbidity or even mortality of women in first trimester. Three types of EP are diagnosed: tubal, cervical and ovarian; tubal is the main type. Identification of the signs and symptoms of acute and chronic EP in women, involving classical clinical trials or other symptoms common to early pregnancy, as well as evaluating the most important congenital and acquired factors related with EP, were discussed. Explanation of the most accurate methods used to diagnose the pregnancy including serum beta hCG and progesterone levels, medical history, ultrasonography, pregnancy tests and laparoscopy was also clarified. The evaluation of the most effective management tools of EP, including methotrexate administration and surgery (laparotomy and laparoscopy), was obviously explained.
Part of the book: Obstetrics