Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal death. In developing countries, approximately 8% of maternal death is caused by PPH. Protocols should provide a standardized approach to evaluate and monitor the patients. A standard protocol must be recognized by the institution and must be accepted and known by all team members. Additionally, it is important to have a massive obstetric hemorrhage protocol (red code) for those patients with an important bleeding who require blood products available as soon as possible. In the red code activation protocol there are several key points to consider: the management algorithm must be known and accepted by all team members, a clear and effective communication between the team must be established and all the participants must know the role they play. Massive obstetric hemorrhage has a multidisciplinary implication: obstetricians, anesthesiologists, pediatricians, midwife, nurses, auxiliary staff, and laboratory blood bank staff. The active participation of the multidisciplinary team in simulations before the protocols implementation facilitates the evaluation of critical points and subsequent changes before their final application, the assessment of the adequacy of circuits and infrastructure, as well as a better protocols compliance.
Part of the book: Obstetrics
Fetal growth defect is classified into intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetus based on the estimated fetal weight percentile and Doppler hemodynamic parameters. IUGR pathophysiology and etiology are complex and diverse, highlighting placental insufficiency as a paradigm, which explains its association with other entities of great clinical importance such as preeclampsia. The poor long- and short-term perinatal and postnatal results associated with this context make it necessary to establish an early diagnosis and a therapeutic strategy, which can be challenging due to the compromise between the threat of intrauterine permanence and the prematurity problem. Consequently, a systematic and protocolized diagnostic-therapeutic management, based on scientific evidence, is necessary to determine whether obstetric intervention through a preterm delivery is advisable to improve the perinatal outcomes of these patients.
Part of the book: Growth Disorders and Acromegaly