This chapter aims to provide basic anatomical knowledge for the interventional electrophysiologists to understand catheter placement and ablation targets. We begin with the location of the heart inside the mediastinum, position of cardiac chambers, pericardial space and neighboring structures of the heart. We continue with the right atrium and important structures inside it: sinus node, cavotricuspid isthmus, Koch’s triangle and interatrial septum with fossa ovalis. A special part of this chapter is dedicated to the left atrium and pulmonary veins with the venoatrial junction, important structures for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. We finish our description with both ventricles with outflow tracts and the coronary venous system.
Part of the book: Human Anatomy
Stem cell therapy is a new strategy for patients with ischemic heart disease. However, no consensus exists on the most optimal delivery strategy, but an important factor that determines the success of stem cell therapy is the choice of cell delivery route to the heart. Delivery strategy affects the fate of cells and subsequently influences outcome of procedure. Our review summarizes current approaches for administration of stem cells to the heart. Three most used approaches are intracoronary, intramyocardial, and epicardial injection. They have been widely used for delivery of different types of cells. There are several advantages of these stem cell administration approaches, but stem cell retention and stem cell survival rates are quite low using these methods, which might limit their therapeutic effects. Alternative attempts to improve current stem cell therapy methods are reviewed along with emerging new stem cell delivery approaches. The present chapter displays the current status on stem cell delivery techniques, their efficacy, and clinical success in different trials.
Part of the book: Stem Cells in Clinical Practice and Tissue Engineering
Medullary thyroid carcinoma is a hormone-producing malignant tumor that synthesizes calcitonin. MTC can be sporadic or familial. It has a malignant behavior. Our chapter has 3 parts: 1.Updates on the diagnosis of MTC -in this part we review the clinical findings in MTC: isolated thyroid nodule, palpable cervical lymph nodes and systemic manifestations. Fine needle aspiration, serum calcitonin, computed tomography (CT) and fludeoxyglucose - positron emission tomograpyh (FDG-PET) are summarized. Biomarkers with prognostic value are be described in detail: plasma calcitonin, carcino-embryonic antigen, germ-line RET mutation and matrix metalloproteinase. 2. Updates on the management and treatment of MTC -we discuss the surgical treatment, radiation therapy, systemic therapy with angiogenesis inhibitors and transcatheter arterial embolization to prevent extension of the tumor. Based on the characteristics of MTC a new approach using gene therapy has been developed to obtain complete remission of the carcinoma. 3. We describe a typical case of MTC from the oncology department, with cervical lymph nodes and a thyroid nodule. Immunohistochemistry staining showed calcitonin in the tumor cells. Thyroid ultrasound with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed the MTC. CT images of the cervical lymph nodes and thyroid nodule as well as microscopy images are presented. Chemotherapy with Dacarbazine was initiated with favorable outcome.
Part of the book: Head and Neck Cancer
Iron is an important element in living systems as it participates in a series of metabolic processes including DNA synthesis and oxygen and electron transport. Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia globally being an important healthcare problem. If left untreated, iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) can cause significant morbidity and often is the result of a more serious underlying condition. Correcting iron deficiency and replenishing iron reserves are important objectives of a well-conducted treatment, but diagnosis should prompt further investigation to establish the cause for potential reversal. Age, tolerance, preferred route of administration, and severity of anemia are some of the patient’s characteristics which require an individualized approach.
Part of the book: Iron Deficiency Anemia