Coffee is one of the most consumed infusion drinks in the world and contains a large variety of chemical compounds responsible for their sensory qualities and their effects on the body. The beneficial effects of coffee have been attributed only to its most important and researched ingredient, caffeine, but now it is known that other components have also contributed to its properties. Due to a huge demand for this product, large amounts of waste are generated in the coffee industry, which are toxic and represent serious environmental problems. During the process of mechanical extraction of the coffee seed, residues generated are: pulp, mucilage and parchment, mainly. Coffee cherry consists of soluble carbohydrates, insoluble polysaccharides, lipids, nitrogenous components, caffeine and minerals. More than 50% is considered a waste; it no longer has any commercial application, knowing that its components could be exploited for the production of inputs and energy. This chapter presents the chemistry and biotransformation of by-products and coffee residues into second-generation biofuels, which can be bioethanol, biogas and biodiesel by fermentation, anaerobic digestion and trans-esterification, respectively. Biofuels offer greater energy security, lower emissions of greenhouse gases and particulate matter, rural development, reduced demand for oil, among others.
Part of the book: The Question of Caffeine